An office, or prayer service, for Olaf is found in the so-called Leofric collectar (c. 1050), which Bishop Leofric of Exeter bequeathed in his last will and testament to Exeter Cathedral.  Like Freyr, he became associated with fertility, which led to his adoption as a patron saint by farmers, fishermen, sailors and merchants of the Hanseatic League, who turned to him for good yield and protection. Jump to: General, Art, Business, Computing, Medicine, Miscellaneous, Religion, Science, Slang, Sports, Tech, Phrases We found 6 dictionaries with English definitions that include the word olaf ii haraldsson: Click on the first link on a line below to go directly to a page where "olaf ii haraldsson" is defined. Born: abt. Many texts have information about Olaf Haraldsson.  In 1016 at the Battle of Nesjar he defeated Earl Sweyn, one of the earls of Lade and hitherto the de facto ruler of Norway. Within a few years he had won more power than any of his predecessors on the throne had enjoyed.  The journey resulted in the Battle at Herdaler, where Olaf and his men were ambushed in the woods. A notable one is The Passion and the Miracles of the Blessed Olafr.. , St.Olaf II's Old Norse name is Ólafr Haraldsson. As a teenager Olaf went to the Baltic, then to Denmark and later to England. Entry for 'Olaf ii Haraldsson' - One of 8 Bible encyclopedias freely available, this resource contained over 40 million words in nearly 40,000 articles written by 1,500 respected authors Olaf II Haraldsson of Norway JOHN JANARO The "conversion of the barbarians" was gradual as Christianity became inculturated among whole populations, and wove an unprecedented fabric of unity among hitherto perpetually warring pagan clans. Although its facts are dubious, the saga recounts Olaf's deeds as follows: About 1008, Olaf landed on the Estonian island of Saaremaa (Osilia).  One is the killing and throwing onto a mountain of a sea serpent still visible on the cliffside. Olaf saw it as his calling to unite Norway into one kingdom, as Harald Fairhair had largely succeeded in doing. , Olaf Haraldsson had the given name Óláfr in Old Norse (etymology: Anu- "forefather", -laibaR —"heir"). The Osilians, taken by surprise, had at first agreed to Olaf's demands, but then gathered an army during the negotiations and attacked the Norwegians. He was posthumously given the title Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae Eternal King of Norway) and canonised in Nidaros (Trondheim) by Bishop Grimkell, one year after his death in the Battle of Stiklestad on 29 July 1030. Norsemen had conquered this region in 881. Despite these events they survived. king of Norway byname Olaf the Quiet , Norwegian Olav Kyrre died 1093, Norway king of Norway (1066–93) who guided the nation through one of its most prosperous periods, maintaining an extended peace rare in medieval Norwegian history.… The main route, approximately 640 km long, starts in the ancient part of Oslo and heads north, along Lake Mjosa, up the Gudbrandsdal Valley, over Dovrefjell and down the Orkdal Valley, ending at Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim. This calls for an explanation of the status he gained after his death. Olave was the traditional spelling in England, preserved in the name of medieval churches dedicated to him.  He was also called Olaf 'The Lawbreaker' for his many brutal ways of converting the Norwegian populace. Olaf (or Olav) II, Saint (Olaf Haraldsson), A.D. 995–1030, king of Norway 1016–29: patron saint of Norway. In Norway today, he is commonly referred to as Olav den hellige (Bokmål; Olaf the Holy) or Heilag-Olav (Nynorsk; the Holy Olaf) in honour of his sainthood. Pope Alexander III confirmed Olaf's local canonisation in 1164, making him a universally recognised saint of the Roman Catholic Church. [a] Grimkell later became the first bishop of Sigtuna in Sweden. It praises Olaf and mentions some of the famous miracles attributed to him.  Apart from the early traces of a cult in England, there are only scattered references to him outside the Nordic area. Many believe Olaf introduced Christian law into Norway in 1024, based upon the Kuli stone. During his reign, the nation of Norway experienced a rare extended period of peace. This is generally accepted to be the earliest datable church foundation dedicated to Olaf and is further evidence of a cult of St. Olaf in the early 1050s in England. For other uses, see, "Olaf the Stout" redirects here. Ta kasvas üles Ringerikes Kagu-Norras. Olav II Haraldsson (oma eluajal tuntud ... Elulugu. Skaldic poetry suggests he led a successful seaborne attack that took down London Bridge, though Anglo-Saxon sources do not confirm this. Olaf was driven into exile in Kievan Rus. The Church of Norway may be dated from 1024, when Olaf and his ecclesiastical adviser, Bishop Grimkell, presented a religious code at Moster. Among the bishops Olaf is known to have brought with him from England was Grimkell (Latin: Grimcillus). Narodil se v roce, kdy se Olaf Tryggvason vrátil do Norska a ujal se vlády. When the Danish king Sweyn (Svein) I gained the advantage in England, Olaf went to Spain and also to France, where he was baptized at Rouen (1013). His popularity spread rapidly; churches and shrines were constructed in his honour in England, Sweden, and Rome. Harald Grenske died when Åsta was pregnant with Olaf. Stream ad-free or purchase CD's and MP3s now on Amazon.com. But Olaf's success was short-lived. But this stone is hard to interpret. Olaf II's Old Norse name is Ólafr Haraldsson. Early depictions of Olaf portray him as clean-shaven, but after 1200 he appears with a red beard, which may have been absorbed from Thor. In 1019 Olaf married Astrid Olofsdotter, King Olof's illegitimate daughter and the half-sister of his former fiancée. Olaf brought with him Grimkell, who is usually credited with helping Olaf create episcopal sees and further organising the Norwegian church. He was probably the only one of the missionary bishops left in the country at the time of Olaf's death, and he stood behind the translation and beatification of Olaf on 3 August 1031. His remains were enshrined in Nidaros Cathedral, built over his burial site. (Etymology: Anu - "forefather", Leifr - "heir".) Corrections? In 1152/3, Nidaros was separated from Lund as the archbishopric of Nidaros. Other names, such as Oláfr hinn helgi, Olavus rex, and Olaf (as used in English) are used interchangeably (see the Heimskringla of Snorri Sturluson). During his reign, the nation of Norway experienced a rare extended period of peace. He was the last Western saint accepted by the Eastern Orthodox church. Olaf II Haraldsson ( 995-July 29 1030 ),a.k.a, Saint Olaf, was King of Norway from 1015-28 . Eysteinn Erlendsson is commonly believed to have written. He is sometimes called Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae (English: "Norway's Eternal King"), a designation which goes back to the 13th century. From Thor, he inherited the quick temper, physical strength and merits of a giant-slayer. Also, Olaf and Grimkell most likely did not introduce new ecclesiastical laws to Norway; these were ascribed to Olaf at a later date. , The saga of Olav Haraldsson and the legend of Olaf the Saint became central to a national identity.  But the shrine did not last. The exact position of Saint Olaf's grave in Nidaros has been unknown since 1568, due to the effects of the Lutheran iconoclasm in 1536–37. [a] The cult of Olaf unified the country and consolidated the christianisation of Norway. The Norwegian synoptic histories also mention Olaf. 1177–1188). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). HRE Ferdinand I's 14-Great Grandfather. Harald Grenske died when Åsta Gudbrandsdatter was pregnant with Olaf. The texts used for the liturgical celebration of St. Olaf during most of the Middle Ages were probably compiled or written by Eystein Erlendsson, the second Archbishop of Nidaros (1161–1189). Olaf sündis 995. aastal Harald Grenske peres ning oli Harald Kaunisjuukse lapselapselaps. His religious code of 1024 is considered to represent Norway’s first national legislation. It praises Olaf and mentions some of the famous miracles attributed to him. Only the Rokokoportal ("Rococo Portal"), built in 1754, remains to mark the spot.   He stayed for some time in the Swedish province of Nerike, where, according to local legend, he baptised many locals. He became an equally important saint of the Eastern Orthodox Church (feast day 29 July) and one of the last famous saints before the Great Schism. Several churches in England were dedicated to him (often as St Olave); the name was presumably popular with Scandinavian immigrants. But the relics of St. Olaf are no longer in the Nidaros Cathedral. HM George I's 16-Great Grandfather. His religious code of 1024 is considered to represent Norway’s first national legislation. Maud of Wales, daughter of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom, was the mother of King Olav V of Norway, so Olav and his son Harald V, the present king of Norway, are descended from Olaf. Media in category "Olaf II of Norway" The following 5 files are in this category, out of 5 total. rsta was born circa 970, in Vestfold, Norway. Olaf II Haraldsson (c. 995 – 29 July 1030), later known as Saint Olaf (and traditionally as St. Olave), was King of Norway from 1015 to 1028. It has been suggested that it could be in Uusimaa. Olaf's local canonization ( The first people honored as saints were the martyrs. Olav II de Heilige Haraldson was born in 995, at birth place, to Sigurd Syr av Norge and rsta Sigurdsson (born Gudbrandsdotter). Olaf most likely did try to bring Christianity to the interior of Norway, where it was less prevalent. Olaf II Haraldsson, born in around A.D. 995, is credited with Christianizing Norway. Olaf II. Norway 1020 AD.png 1,134 × 2,002; 337 KB. Olaf Haraldsson had the given name Óláfr in Old Norse. It was here he converted to Christianity and was baptized at the Notre Dame Cathedral. He was said to have healing power, which attracted people to his shrine, and various springs were claimed to have sprung forth where he or his body had been.  Following the Reformation he was a commemorated historical figure among some members of the Lutheran and Anglican Communions. Canute forced Olaf to flee to Russia (1028), where the Norwegian ruler took refuge with his Swedish wife’s relatives. Canute’s control of the trade routes to the west of Norway, and the prospect of his ruling more indirectly than Olaf had done, won the support of leading Norwegian chieftains. Its altarpiece contains a painting of the saint, shown as a martyr king defeating a dragon, representing victory over his pagan past. Lindow, John. Numerous Danish churches were dedicated to Olaf during his reign, and the sagas give glimpses of the young king's efforts to promote the cult of his deceased father. He was killed in battle, and regarded by Norwegians as the great champion of national independence and a martyr. The Oldest Saga of St. Olaf (c. 1200) is important to scholars for its constant use of skaldic verses, many of which are attributed to Olaf himself. This English cult seems to have been short-lived. When King Magnus died during 1069, Olaf became the sole ruler of Norway. Check out Olaf II Haraldsson by S91 on Amazon Music. , Questions have also been raised about the nature of Olaf's Christianity. Olaf tried to force Christianity on them, but they revolted in 1029, and drove him first to Sweden and then to Kiev (in modern Russia). Olav is the modern equivalent in Norwegian, formerly often spelt Olaf. King Olaf Haraldsson of Norway had the given name Óláfr in Old Norse. In Norway today, he is commonly called Olav den hellige (Bokmål; Olaf the Holy) or Heilage-Olav (Nynorsk; the Holy Olaf) in honour of his sainthood. It was founded in 1463 or 1464 by Heinrich Kalteisen at his retirement home, the Dominican Monastery in the Altstadt ("Old City") neighborhood of Koblenz. He is also venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church.. The chapel was restored in 1980 and reinaugurated by Bishop John Willem Gran, bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Oslo. Omissions? Normans were somewhat familiar with the culture of the people they were to convert and in some cases may have been able to understand the language. After the death of his father, Olaf shared the kingdom with his brother Magnus II (Magnus 2 Haraldsson) who had become king the previous year. Miracles performed by St. Olaf appear for the first time in Þórarinn loftunga's skaldic poem Glælognskviða, or "Sea-Calm Poem", from about 1030–34. There he gathered his forces, and in 1030 tried to re-take his throne. He was posthumously given the title Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae (English: Eternal/Perpetual King of Norway) and canonised at Nidaros by Bishop Grimkell, one year after his death in the Battle of Stiklestad on 29 July 1030. Olaf seized the opportunity to win back the kingdom, but he fell in 1030 at the Battle of Stiklestad, where some of his own subjects from central Norway took arms against him. Numerous churches in Norway, Sweden, and Iceland were dedicated to him. "St. Olaf and the Skalds." At this time, local bishops and their people recognised and proclaimed a person a saint, and a formal canonisation procedure through the papal curia was not customary; in Olaf's case, this did not happen until 1888. Olaf nevertheless won the battle. In: DuBois, Thomas A., ed. 995. Sigurd was born between 952 and 957, in Vestfold, Norway. , It is said that Olaf participated alongside fellow Viking Thorkell the Tall in the Siege of Canterbury in 1011.. These include the Ágrip af Nóregskonungasögum (c. 1190), the Historia Norwegiae (c. 1160–1175) and a Latin text, Historia de Antiquitate Regum Norwagiensium by Theodoric the Monk (c. 1177–1188). The oldest is the Glælognskviða or "Sea-Calm Poem", composed by Þórarinn loftunga, an Icelander. Norský či Olaf II.Haraldsson (995, Ringerike – 29. července 1030), byl norský král v letech 1015 až 1028.Během jeho života se mu přezdívalo Tlustý a po jeho kanonizaci začal být znám jako Svatý Olaf. Son of Harald Grenske, a petty king in Vestfold, Norway, he was posthumously given the title Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae (English: Eternal/Perpetual King of Norway) and canonised at Nidaros (Trondheim) by Bishop Grimkell, one year after his death in the Battle of Stiklestad on 29 July 1030. Olaf lost many men but made it back to his boats. 29 lipca 1030) – król Norwegii w latach 1016–1028, święty Kościoła katolickiego.. Wprowadził w kraju chrześcijaństwo (między innymi stworzył w nim biskupstwa, zakazał spożywania końskiego mięsa), zniósł niewolnictwo, ograniczył władzę arystokracji i wprowadził lokalne ustawodawstwo. Born. Modern historians generally agree that Olaf was inclined to violence and brutality, and note that earlier scholars often neglected this side of his character. During his lifetime he was known as Olaf 'the fat' or 'the stout' (Ólafr digri; Modern Norwegian Olaf digre). , Popular tradition also made marks in the ecclesiastical material. Olaf has traditionally been seen as leading the Christianisation of Norway, but most scholars of the period now believe that Olaf had little to do with the process. What seems clear is that Olaf made efforts to establish a church organization on a broader scale than before, among other things by importing bishops from England, Normandy and Germany, and that he tried to enforce Christianity in the inland areas, which had the least communication with the rest of Europe, and which economically were more strongly based on agriculture, so that the inclination to hold on to the former fertility cult was stronger than in the more diversified and expansive western parts of Norway. , In Germany, there used to be a shrine of St. Olaf in Koblenz. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Olaf-II-Haraldsson, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of St. Olaf Haraldson. , Finally, many hagiographic sources describe St. Olaf, but these focus mostly on miracles attributed to him and cannot be used to accurately recreate his life. Olaf sailed to the southern coast of Finland sometime in 1008. This was before the time of the formal canonization process now in use. The route is known as The Pilgrim's Way (Pilegrimsleden). Olaf II Haraldsson, also called Saint Olaf, Norwegian Hellig-Olav, (born c. 995—died July 29, 1030, Stiklestad, Norway; feast day July 29), the first effective king of all Norway and the country’s patron saint, who achieved a 12-year respite from Danish domination and extensively increased the … Åsta was born circa 970, in Upplands, Vestfold, Norway. Olaf Haraldsson was born circa 995, at birth place, to Harald Gudrødsson Grenske and Åsta "Astrid" Grenske (born Gudbrandsdottir). The skaldic verses attributed to Olaf do not speak of Christianity at all, but use pagan references to describe romantic relationships.. It was originally a gift presented to Pope Leo XIII in 1893 for the golden jubilee of his ordination as a bishop by Norwegian nobleman and papal chamberlain Baron Wilhelm Wedel-Jarlsberg. Olaf resolved his conflict with the Swedish king Olaf Skötkonung by 1019 and joined forces with the king’s son Anund Jakob when Canute, king of England and Denmark, threatened to conquer Norway. Numerous royal, grand ducal and ducal lines are descended from Ordulf and Wulfhild, including members of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. (Etymology: Anu – "forefather", Leifr – "heir".) Olaf II `the Holy King' HARALDSSON. In 1029, King Cnut's Norwegian regent, Jarl Håkon Eiriksson, was lost at sea. A widely used account of Olaf's life is found in Heimskringla from c. 1225. But Olaf II died before the East-West Schism and a strict Roman Rite was not well-established in Scandinavia at the time. It also led to the naming of St Olave's Grammar School, which was established in 1571 and was in Tooley Street until 1968, when it moved to Orpington, Kent. A Pilgrim's Office in Oslo gives advice to pilgrims, and a Pilgrim Centre in Trondheim, under the aegis of the Cathedral, awards certificates to pilgrims when they complete their journeys.  He made peace with King Olof Skötkonung of Sweden through Þorgnýr the Lawspeaker, and was for some time engaged to Olof's daughter, Princess Ingegerd, though without Olof's approval.  Around the 12th century, folk traditions and iconography of Olaf absorbed elements of the gods Thor and Freyr from Norse mythology. U.S. President [WASHINGTON] 's 22-Great Grandfather. Before leaving, Olaf was baptised in Rouen in the pre-Romanesque Notre-Dame Cathedral by Richard's brother Robert the Dane, archbishop of Normandy.  Another took place on the day of his death, when a blind man regained his sight after rubbing his eyes with hands stained with Olaf's blood. The Passio a miracule beati Olavi, the official record of Olaf's miracles, contains an episode where Olaf helps a man escape from the huldrefolk, the "hidden people" of Norwegian folklore. His name in Icelandic is Ólafur, in Danish Oluf, in Swedish Olof, the Norse-Gaels called him Amlaíb and in Waterford it is Olave. PM Churchill's 26-Great Grandfather. Grimkell was later appointed bishop in the diocese of Selsey in southeastern England. In Christian times this legitimation of a dynasty's right to rule and its national prestige was based on its descent from a saintly king. role of Olaf II. Harald was born Before 950, in Grenland, Vestfold fylke, Norge. As a teenager, he went to the Baltics, Denmark, and England, and wintered with Duke Richard II of Normandy on his way home. Writing around 1070, Adam of Bremen mentions pilgrimage to St. Olaf's shrine in Nidaros, but this is the only firm trace we have of a cult of St. Olaf in Norway before the mid-12th century. When he died in 1464, he was buried in front of the shrine's altar. Owing to Olaf's later status as Norway's patron saint, and to his importance in later medieval historiography and in Norwegian folklore, it is difficult to assess the historical Olaf's character.
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