history of tunisia

Omissions? The amount of precipitation, all falling as rain, varies considerably from north to south. (Page of tag Tunisia) Author of. The next bey, Muḥammad (1855–59), tried to ignore Europe, but this was no longer possible. It was the Phoenicians that first founded Tunisia’s most famous city of Carthage, which would eventually rival Rome as the most dominant city on the Mediterranean Sea. Farther south, streams are intermittent and largely localized in the form of wadis, which are subject to seasonal flooding and terminate inland in chotts. March 20, 1956, is Independence Day, when Tunisia gained its independence fromFrance. At night, each locked himself in his room, but in the morning, life was always communal. Agricultural communities in the humid coastal plains of central Tunisia then were ancestors of today's Berber tribes. Although the story is certainly apocryphal, Carthage nonetheless grew into one of the great cities and preeminent powers of antiquity, and its colonies and entrepôts were scattered throughout the western Mediterranean region. Similarly, the capital, Tunis, blends ancient Arab souks and mosques and modern-style office buildings into one of the most handsome and lively cities in the region. The major drainage feature of the north is the Majardah River, the country’s only perennially flowing stream, which cuts the Majardah valley before emptying into the Gulf of Tunis, near the site of ancient Carthage. Then from about 1100 BC the Phoeniciansfrom what is now Lebanon settled and traded in the area. The following discussion offers a brief summary of Tunisia’s early history but mainly focuses on Tunisia since about 1800. Tunisia, country of North Africa. Continued civil disturbances and corruption prompted the British and French to force the bey to issue the Fundamental Pact (ʿAhd al-Amān; September 1857), a civil rights charter modeled on the Ottoman rescript of 1839. The climate of the country, similar to the topography, is greatly varied. A mean annual rainfall of about 60 inches (1,520 mm) occurs in the Kroumirie Mountains in northwestern Tunisia, making it the wettest region in North Africa, as compared with less than 4 inches (100 mm) at Tozeur (Tawzar) in the southwest. It can be argued that Tunisia’s location is strategic because … To the south of the Tunisian Dorsale lies a hilly region known as the Haute Steppe (High Steppes) in the west and the Basse Steppe (Low Steppes) in the east. Kairouan. It was made during the reformist ministry of Khayr al-Dīn (1873–77), one of the most effective statesmen of the 19th-century Muslim world. Tunisia is one of the … Popular pages. Tunisia is the smallest of the Maghrib states and consequently the most cohesive. Temperatures at Sousse average 44 °F (7 °C) in January and 89 °F (32 °C) in August. Tunisia was called IfrÄ«qiyyah in the early centuries of the Islamic period. History First Peoples. This provoked an uprising in southern Tunisia during which France attacked and captured Sousse in July 1881, took Kairouan in October, and seized Gafsa and Gabès in November. In 1830, at the time of the French invasion of Algiers, Tunisia was officially a province of the Ottoman Empire but in reality was an autonomous state. Is the northernmost point of Africa farther north than the southernmost point of Europe? Independence for Tunisia. pop. Its coastline on the Mediterranean Sea made it the subject of many empires throughout history. The kitchen, half of it roofed over and the rest an open courtyard, was a long vertical passage toward the light. Kenneth Perkins's new edition of A History of Modern Tunisia carries the history of this country from 2004 to the present, with particular emphasis on the Tunisian revolution of 2011 - the first critical event of … List View List. List of beys of Tunis. Carthage Must Be Destroyed:… by Richard Miles. Prices. Add new page. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Brief History of Tunisia: Tunisia is the northern point of Africa. This valley was once the granary of ancient Rome and has remained to this day the richest grain-producing region of Tunisia. The history of early Tunisia and its indigenous inhabitants, the Berbers, is obscure prior to the founding of Carthage by seafaring Phoenicians from Tyre (in present-day Lebanon) in the 9th century BC .A great mercantile state developed at Carthage (near modern-day Tunis), which proceeded to dominate the western Mediterranean world. Tunisia’s culture is highly diverse, in part because of long periods of Ottoman and then French rule but also because populations of Jews and Christians have lived among a Muslim majority for centuries. We'll give it a try. It is important as a winter sanctuary for such birds as the greylag goose, coot, and wigeon. The Phoenicians founded Carthage in Tunisia in the 8th century BC. Africa Destinations. Following the decline of Rome, the region was ruled briefly by the Vandals and then the Byzantine Empire before being conquered by the Arabs in 647 ce. Comparable temperatures at Kairouan are 40 °F (4 °C) in January and 99 °F (37 °C) in August. Tunisia’s people are renowned for their conviviality and easygoing approach to daily life, qualities that Albert Memmi captured in his 1955 autobiographical novel Pillar of Salt: We shared the ground floor of a shapeless old building, a sort of two-room apartment. Desert locusts sometimes damage crops in the southern part of the country. Carthage was a Phoenician city-state on the coast of North Africa (the site of modern-day Tunis) which, prior the conflict with Rome known as the Punic Wars (264-146 BCE), was the largest, most affluent, and powerful political entity in the Mediterranean.The city was originally known as Kart-hadasht (new city) to distinguish it from the older Phoenician city of Utica nearby. This great ethnic diversity is still seen in the variety of Tunisian family names. 1 - 20 of 46 results. Eugene Roe; Project maintenance. A Brief History of Tunisia Muslim Conquest. Temperatures are moderated by the sea, being less extreme at Sousse on the coast, for example, than at Kairouan (Al-Qayrawān) inland. Most visited articles. Updates? Soils. Between the limestone peaks of the central Tunisian Dorsale and the mountains of the Northern Tell—which include the sandstone ridges of the Kroumirie Mountains in the northwest that reach elevations of 3,000 feet (900 metres)—and the Mogods, a mountain range running along the deeply indented coastline to the north, lies the Majardah (Medjerda) River valley, formed by a series of ancient lake basins covered with alluvium. This book examines the history of Tunisia from the mid-nineteenth century to the present with an emphasis on political, social, economic and cultural developments. The emerging Roman Empire was not happy with these events, and 128 years of Punic Wars ensued. The precipitation also greatly varies, as the north receives significantly more rainfall than the south. QUICK ADD. His reforms negatively affected the already stagnant economy, which led to greater debt, higher taxes, and increased unrest in the countryside. That name, in turn, comes from the Roman word for Africa and the name also given by the Romans to their first African colony following the Punic Wars against the Carthaginians in 264–146 bce. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The Glory Days of Carthage. Thereafter, the vulnerable beylik of Tunis found itself surrounded by two larger powers—France and the Ottoman Empire—both of which had designs on Tunisia. The vast majority of the population was Muslim, with a small Jewish minority. On the political level the successful conclusion of the Tunisia Campaign left one Allied problem unsolved: factionalism among the French. Tunisia. The extreme south is largely sandy desert, much of it part of the Great Eastern Erg of the Sahara. Tunisia has a very unique location. The most famous people of the ancient world to mark the area of modern-day Tunisia were the Phoenicians, who settled here in the 1st millennium BCE and went on to found their legendary capital of Carthage. The app cover whole Tunisia history from Mesolithic era to Parliamentary system. The Tunisian Dorsale, or High Tell, a southwest-northeast–trending mountain range that is an extension of the Saharan Atlas (Atlas Saharien) of Algeria, tapers off in the direction of the Sharīk (Cape Bon) Peninsula in the northeast, south of the Gulf of Tunis. The following discussion offers a brief summary of Tunisia’s early history but mainly focuses on Tunisia since about 1800. Large plains border the eastern coasts; south of Sousse lies Al-Sāḥil (Sahel) and south of Gabès is Al-Jifārah (Gefara) Plain. Tunisia to͞onē´zhə, tyo͞o– [key], Fr. One name looms above all in Tunisia's history: Carthage. Beach at Al-Marsā, on the Gulf of Tunis, northeastern Tunisia. Add to Wishlist. Though Tunisia went bankrupt in 1869 and an international financial commission—with British, French, and Italian representatives—was imposed on the country, there was one last attempt to reform Tunisia from within and thus avoid complete European domination. But before reaching this square of pure blue sky, it received, from a multitude of windows, all the smoke, the smells, and the gossip of our neighbours. About 480 BC the Phoenicians founded Carthage. Generally, from mid-autumn to mid-spring, when three-fourths of the annual total occurs, northern Tunisia receives more than 16 inches of rainfall, and the steppe region receives from 4 to 16 inches (100 to 400 mm). Conscription was also introduced, to the great dismay of the peasantry. The most notable immigration was that of the Spanish Moors (Muslims), which began after the fall of Sevilla (Seville), Spain, as a result of the Reconquista in 1248 and which turned into a veritable exodus in the early 17th century. Emeritus Professor, Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences, University of Tunis. Tunisia’s accessible Mediterranean Sea coastline and strategic location have attracted conquerors and visitors throughout the ages, and its ready access to the Sahara has brought its people into contact with the inhabitants of the African interior. Yet, Tunisia proved to be as vulnerable economically as it was militarily. Occupying the eastern portion of the great bulge of North Africa, Tunisia is bounded on Recovered for Spain in 1535, Tunisia is finally brought under Ottoman control in 1574. With the help of Western advisers (mainly French), he created a modern army and navy and related industries. This agreement, known as the Convention of Al-Marsa, was signed in 1883 and solidified French control over Tunisia. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. From that time until the establishment of the French protectorate in 1881, Tunisian rulers had to placate the larger powers while working to strengthen the state from within. This is a whole app is very easy to use. Book Description. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Romans ruled and settled in North Africa until the 5th century, when the Roman Empire fell and... From Arab Center to French Protectorate. By the sixth and fifth centuries B.C., the great city-state of Carthage (derived from the Phoenician name for “new city”) dominated much of the western Mediterranean. Carthage fought a series of wars with its rival, Rome. 11,274,000), 63,378 sq mi (164,150 sq km), NW Africa. In the dry south, moreover, they are often also saline because of excessive evaporation. By about 8,000 BC human beings lived in what is now Tunisia by hunting and gathering. Tunisie, officially Republic of Tunisia, republic (2015 est. Travel Destinations. During the 8th and 9th centuries BC, the Phoenicians became the first of the many civilizations to leave their mark on Tunisia. Paperback; NOOK Book; Hardcover; Tunisia - History. That name, in turn, comes from the Roman word for Africa and the name also given by the Romans to their … After achieving independence in 1956, Tunisia pursued a progressive social agenda and sought to modernize its economy under two long-serving presidents, Habib Bourguiba and Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. A small state with limited resources, Tunisia nonetheless managed to retain considerable autonomy within the framework of the larger empires that frequently ruled it from afar. Saved by Emperor Reynard IV. The variation in climate leads to the great diversity of ecoregions in Tunisia. Aḥmad Bey, who ruled from 1837 to 1855, was an avowed modernizer and reformer. For a more detailed treatment of earlier periods and of the country in its regional context, see North Africa. Harvests vary as a result, being poor in dry years. Drainage. However, enemies from within and European intrigues from without conspired to force him from office. This warmth, joined with the country’s renowned hospitality and cuisine, has contributed greatly to Tunisia’s growing popularity as a destination for tourists from throughout Europe and the Americas. Throughout its recorded history, the physical features and environment of the land of Tunisia have remained fairly constant, although during ancient times more abundant forests grew in the north, and earlier in prehistory the Sahara to the south was not an arid desert. After about 5,000 BC they began farming although they still used stone tools. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Tunisia. Saved from en.wikipedia.org. Finally, from the 16th to the 19th century, the Ottomans brought their own blend of Asian and European traditions. This status was achieved, for example, under the ʿAbbāsids in the 9th century and later under the Ottomans. Land. By 1574, Tunisia was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire, whose control of the region, always tenuous, had all but dissolved by the 19th century.

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